The Social Exclusion and Discrimination Studies Unit undertakes studies on the nature and forms of social exclusion and discrimination in multiple spheres: exclusion and discrimination associated with the institution of caste and untouchability, ethnic and religious identities, and other forms of group identities. The spheres mainly include discrimination in market and non-market institutions. The market institutions covers labour, factor inputs and products, land markets as well as wage labour, regular salaried, farmers, and private entrepreneurs engaged in production and business. The non-market institutions mainly include government institutions and agencies engaged in education (schools and higher education institutions), primary health centres, public distribution systems and urban housing. The other main themes are discrimination in social/cultural spheres, in political institutions, atrocities and violence.